Sunday, June 7, 2020

GRE Tutoring Building Vocabulary for the Verbal Sections

As a GRE tutor, I have worked with many students who believe that they have a large vocabulary and they typically do, but they lose points on the GRE because they do not know the official definition of a word. The way we use words in spoken English isn’t always true to the original meaning. For example, take the word â€Å"momentarily†. How many times have you been on a train and heard the train announcer say: â€Å"We will be moving momentarily.† Well, this actually means: â€Å"We will be moving for a moment†, not the intended â€Å"We will be moving in a moment†. Due to the common misappropriation of language, our understanding and usage of vocabulary sometimes deviates from the official defintion. These distinctions matter on tests, so focusing your standadized test preparation on memmorizing (or re-learning) vocab helps. These kinds of traps are common on the GRE. To get started, download our Vocabulary hotlist. ; Now that you’re armed with every GRE word that could possibly show up on the test, we recommend that you: †¢ CreateGRE vocab flashcards. Yes, there are pre-made flashcards out there, but here’s the thing: They cost money and they just don’t work as well. Nothing beats index cards + an old-fashioned pencil (or pen) when it comes to vocab. †¢ Get started on avocab schedule. Even if you only write 2 or 3 new flashcards a day, that’s better than zero flashcards and it’s better than buying a whole stack and cramming for a week. You may be wondering: How do I pick the most important words off this enormously long list? This is where a tutor can help you. Cambridge Coaching’s GRE tutors have seen hundreds of GRE problems and they can help you hone in on key vocabulary. ;

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

International Organizational Feuds Acts Of Aggression

International organizational feuds: acts of aggression? In this paper I will take an in depth look at recent state sanctioned Chinese cyber-attacks against United States organizations and agencies. These attacks have had profound effects, ultimately altering structures and processes. Government officials are calling for millions of dollars in training and defense measures, while many are now becoming aware of a new type of threat. The inter-organizational relationships, external environment, and ecosystem have also been denaturized. I will also take a look at scholarly definitions of war and how they may be applied to the issue at hand. Finally, I will examine the United Nation’s doctrine and deem whether these attacks should be considered aggressive acts made by China, and what may result. Before state sanctioned cyber-attacks against U.S. organizations, infrastructure, and government can be analyzed, the concepts and environment surrounding the issue must be explored. These concepts include the traditional theoretical views of war and armed conflict, the current definitions of cyber-warfare, and the relationship of armed conflict and law in the changing landscape of the twenty-first century. Many of these concepts are still actively debated today due to building and breaking of relationships, evolving nature of cyber warfare, and the dynamism phenomenon or state of the environment, which Daft (2016) defines as â€Å"stable or unstable, simple or complex† (p.146). InShow MoreRelatedOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesinteresting and valuable. Peter Holdt Christensen, Associate Professor, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark McAuley et al.’s book is thought-provoking, witty and highly relevant for understanding contemporary organizational dilemmas. The book engages in an imaginative way with a wealth of organizational concepts and theories as well as provides insightful examples from the practical world of organizations. The authors’ sound scholarship and transparent style of writing set the book apart, making it an ingeniousRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pages mymanagementlab is an online assessment and preparation solution for courses in Principles of Management, Human Resources, Strategy, and Organizational Behavior that helps you actively study and prepare material for class. Chapter-by-chapter activities, including built-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Read MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words   |  658 PagesIntroduction to strategy Business environment: general Five forces analysis Capability analysis Corporate governance Stakeholder expectations Social responsibility Culture Competitive strategy Strategic options: directions Corporate-level strategy International strategy Innovation and Entrepreneurship Strategic options: methods Strategy evaluation Strategic management process Organising Resourcing Managing change Strategic leadership Strategy in practice Public sector/not-for-proï ¬ t management Small business

Impact of Party Drugs on the Youth Culture free essay sample

Adolescence refers to the age group from 14 to 26 years. Ten percent of this age group use party drugs (Bennett, 2003). According to Arnett (2004) , this period of development is distinguished by five characteristics: identity exploration, instability, self-focus, a feeling of in-between and possibilities (Arnett, 2004, pg. 14). It is against these five characteristics that the impact of party drugs on the youth culture will be assessed. This essay will explore how the characteristics of adolescence place teenagers at risk from drug experimentation and how the perception of policy makers will influence the community’s response to the problem. The exploration of identity involves having a range of experiences that provides the adolescent with the means to assess the possibilities for the purpose of formulating a distinctive self-image. To do this requires that the teenager have a range of experiences that seem distinct from those experienced through their parents. This journey of exploration results in an introverted focus on self and a sense of becoming, of being caught in the middle. In the individualised cultures of western societies, this transition involves a separation from parents and the construction of an independent self-sufficient identity (Arnett, 2004). The instability can often manifest in ‘risky behaviours’. Although adolescence is a time for the construction of a unique self identity, it is also a time when a sense of belonging is engendered through common cultural construction. One subset of this cultural construction is the rave party scene that is a global phenomenon of the youth subculture (Shapiro, 1999). A rave party is often a large gathering of young people in an atmosphere where there is music and laser lights. This sub-culture is linked to the drug culture through party drugs such as ecstasy and ketamine. The effect of these drugs is to create a sense of wellbeing and a feeling of lightness. The choice to take drugs is an individual one and is part of the desire to escape from the pressures of adolescence. The rave party by its very nature is essentially a form of escape. What then are adolescences escaping from? The very nature of adolescence: the sense of being without identity, the lack of a mental framework to manage the adult world and the pressures of identity construction, create tensions in the person. This escapism is not confined to adolescences as many adults abuse alcohol and amphetamines as a means of escaping the pressures of the adult world. For many users, taking the drug is part of the risk behaviour of adolescence that has the pay-off of feelings of well-being. They do not se themselves as drug users as they do not view their use of party drugs as being a problem. This normalises drug use and makes it difficult for agencies to intervene (Duff, 2003). It is wrong however to assume that all users are escaping from something. One of the features of adolescence is the search for identity and self meaning. This search behaviour creates a heightened sense of curiosity in adolescents as they seek to make sense of self. This curiosity can evolve unconsciously to drug abuse through prolonged use as a result of the uplifting effects of the first experience. The need to fund the regular purchase of the drug can lead into dealing. Bad experiences often will not cause a rejection of the drug as these pale against the many pleasures that the individual has experienced. The chain of events can have dire consequences for the individual as a health problem becomes a criminal problem. The long term destruction that criminalisation of drugs causes to young people is good reason to see drug abuse as a health problem. Within party drug users there are the same segments that are feature of any drug user cross section. Some users abuse the drug and are at risk from overdose and dehydration. Others are more controlled and cautious in their use. This group is at risk from being unable to identify the ingredients of the drug that they are purchasing. One of the key problems with party drugs is the inability for the buyer to know the ingredients contained in the drug that they are purchasing (VAAD, 2003). Users of party drugs will tend to repeat their use on a regular basis. According to Baxter (2003) users are concerned that there is no means of determining the purity and reducing the level of risk. Males tend to use party drugs more frequently than females. This tends to indicate that there is greater gender difference where males are less risk averse. This trend is declining as more and more females are using party drugs. This trend reflects the emancipation of women and a stronger sense of independence amongst adolescent women. The traditional delineation of the rite of passage for the male and the female have become blurred in modern society. Women will often use drugs to challenge the traditional perceptions of their role in society. Within the community, there are people that see drug abuse as being criminal while others see it as a social and health problem. The criminal perspective adopts a punishment solution with rehabilitation. Such a position can have a long term effect on the individual due to problems faced with travel and employment. Community response is to increase policing and to use strategies such as sniffer dogs in public and undercover police at venues to catch the suppliers and users. Police raids will be conducted on rave parties. Such an approach marginalises the rave culture and runs the risk of impairing the social development of the individual. The perspective that sees the issue as a health issue seeks to develop preventative programmes that educate people. Greater understanding is sought for the motivation of young people for taking drugs through social research. Strategies for assisting at risk people are developed that provides for free, readily available access to health care and treatment. The health professional will often argue for the decriminalisation of the drug so that it can be obtained in a controlled manner and the purity of the product guaranteed. When considered against the characteristics of adolescence as provided by Arnett (2004), this approach appears to be the least detrimental to the social and personal development of the adolescent. Government programs, such as Ravesafe, adopt this approach. One of the prime reasons that this approach should prevail is that party drugs are seen by the user as being catalysts for self reflection and construction of identity. Their sense of self and social relationships results in a positive self-image which may be in contradiction to how they feel when in the adult world. The party drug tends to alleviate insecurity and doubt. Research has shown that there might be some overflow from the atmosphere of the rave party to real life. The need for early intervention arises from the research findings that drug abuse is often a precursor for youth suicide, crime and metal illness (VAAD, 2003). Interventionist strategies will view drug use as a problem which immediately places the interventionist in opposition to the youth culture. The clash between the pleasures of the drug and the potential harm of the drug creates a generational clash (Duff, 2003). To deal with the issue it is necessary to accept the reality of use and work on fostering environments that support safe use. If this is provided then it will reduce the ‘trial and error’ approach that is a feature of the risk behaviour of adolescents. VAAD (2003) found that the problem can be best solved through drug education that must resist seeing the youth culture as a homogeneous group. Adolescents involved in the rave scene come from a wide variety of backgrounds (Shapiro, 1999). Because there is little understanding of the attitudes of youth subgroups within the rave scene it is necessary for more research to be done (Baxter, 2003). In this way the content and approach of the drug education programme can directly appeal to the target segment. This will help in a more receptive response from the target group. In conclusion, the developmental characteristics of adolescence creates a natural disposition towards drug experimentation amongst some segments of teenagers. Party drugs are often seen as being part of the scene that assist in the integration of the individual with both self and the group that they belong to. Drug use can be used by the female gender to reconstruct identity. Given these features, the perspective that drug use should be a criminal offence resulting in punishment and long term consequences for the individual seems self defeating. The view that drug abuse has the potential to be a health problem will result in a community response that is more supportive to the individual. The safety of the drug can be established and the social stigma placed on adolescents can be removed. Social policy needs to consider the developmental characteristics of adolescence in its construction.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Rutgers Education free essay sample

It seems like a big welding pot in Rutgers which melted multiple cultures of different students from diverse backgrounds all over the world; especially therein the featured global village that aims to create the atmosphere to communicate with each other for international students is what I am pursuing in my academic study. On one hand, in modern society it’s necessary for us to make contact with various persons, thus it would definitely support my career in the future through primarily acquainting myself with conventions and customs of foreign peoples on the basis of solid knowledge foundation and excellent social international skills. On the other hand, as the tendency of business globalization becomes more and more popular, commercial trade among districts and areas would tremendously increase so as to develop respective advantages in virtue of others’; it is Rutgers that, I believe, would help me grow into a comprehensive professional in the field I would like to address while I could also exchange and disseminate the charming Chinese culture to all staff. We will write a custom essay sample on Rutgers Education or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page More importantly, Rutgers is located nearby the developed cities of New York and Philadelphia and has been keeping touch with the industries around, so that the curriculum exquisitely set by Rutgers is closely integrated with current situation of global market based upon advanced expertise faculty, modernized facilities and feasible training opportunities. Except appropriate and quiet environment for academic study, Rutgers also pays attention to practices and offers the positions of internship in large-scale enterprises, which absolutely contributes to the cultivation of alumni’s capability for the professional career in the whole life.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Ethical Self Reflection Essay Essay Example

Ethical Self Reflection Essay Essay Example Ethical Self Reflection Essay Essay Ethical Self Reflection Essay Essay Abstraction In many instances. a individual must take between two or more â€Å"rights† that may or may non aline with both one’s lesson and ethical criterions. The care-based. rule-based. ends-based thought to get at a determination instead than apologizing after the fact are necessary for analysing ethical quandary ( Hughes. Ginnett. A ; Curphy. 2012. pp. 164-165 ) . The self-reflection needed to place one’s cardinal nature. and to understand the ethical motives. moralss and values one uses to do determinations are critical to going an reliable leader who is a moral director that serves the people that follow him or her ( Hughes. et. Al. pp. 152-153 ) . Ethical Self Reflection What is right? Ethical motives define personal character related to the thoughts of both right and incorrect. Ethical motives. while inherently linked to ethical motives and one’s moral duties. is a set of moral rules used in a societal system in which those ethical motives are applied. In other words. moralss point to criterions or codifications of behaviour expected by the group to which the person belongs. These criterions could be national moralss. societal moralss. company moralss. professional moralss. or even household moralss. So while a person’s moral codification is normally unchanging. the moralss he or she patterns can be dependent on exogenic factors non controlled by the person or the group to which the person belongs. Care-based thought describes what is normally referred to as the Golden Rule. â€Å"Do unto others as you want others to make to you† . of behavior and is most closely aligned with Aristotle’s Hagiographas refering felicity. Ar istotle writes in Nichomachean Ethics that. â€Å"If felicity is activity in conformity with virtuousness. it is sensible that it should be in conformity with the highest virtuousness ; and this will be that of the best thing in us† ( Aristotle. 1992. p. 7 ) . Therefore the thought of moralss does non get down with the ethical motives of either right or incorrect. but starts with the premiss that we all desire what is good or what seems so to us ( Brennan. 1992. p. 64 ) . Happiness. so. is to populate in an objectively good manner harmonizing to several virtuousnesss that conform to the best and most complete facets of human activity including wisdom. cognition. bravery. self-denial. munificence. and honest aspiration ( Brennan. pp. 65-67 ) . These virtuousnesss describe the character of a good individual whose Acts of the Apostless are ethically free. non compelled ; voluntary and non forced. Unlike Aristotle’s character based moralss. Immanuel Kant proposes a rule-based thought that actions of true moral worth are done when a individual does the right thing because it is right and non for what benefit the individual can acquire out of the act ( Hughes. et. Al. p. 165 ) . This type of believing mostly negates the external factors that may act upon a person’s disposition to wiegh the determination to move based on the greatest hapiness provided to thegreatest figure of people. When one takes the consequences or effects of an act into consideration moreso than the act’s rightness or inappropriateness. so the act can be said to be based on ends-based thought ( Hughes. et. Al. p. 165 ) . This thought is mostly based on Utilitariansim proposed by JohnStuart Mill in 1863 who defines it as: The credo which accepts as the foundation of ethical motives. Utility. or the Greatest Happiness Principle. holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to advance felicity. incorrect as they tend to bring forth the felicity. By felicity is intended supplication sure. and the absence of hurting ; by sadness. hurting. and the want of pleasance ( Mill. 1863. pp. 9-10 ) . Mill. nevertheless. did non suggest that the terminals of an action justified the agencies. for justness. to Mills. is paramount to the creative activity of good organisations and societies ( Mill. pp. 42-43 ) . The rule of ends-based thought or utilitarianism requires that each individual count for every bit much as the following. and that no individual adult male or adult female should be made to endure unfairness in order to increase the felicity of all the remainder ( Brennan. p. 98 ) . Determining why we say what we are traveling to state ; why we do what we are traveling to make ; and why we feel what we feel in an ethical quandary presupposes that moral pick is rational. However. â€Å"man is non a rational animate being ; he is a apologizing animal†¦ [ and ] one of the hardest things to believe is the abysmal deepness of human stupidity† ( Heinlein. 1953. p. 18 ) . This Sartrean trade name of existential philosophy is based on the thought that we act first. and so look around for ground afterward ( Brennan. p. 122 ) . This rationalizing does non run at the degree of our ain behaviour entirely. We. as societal animate beings. are prone to accommodate to the world as others find it. We tend to conform. even if. when rationally examined. the world of the group does non do sense. â€Å"To thine ain ego be true. and it must follow. as the dark the twenty-four hours. thou canst non so be false to any man† ( Shakespeare. Hamlet. Act I scene 3. 78-82 ) . Shakespeare provides Polonius a voice that resonates clearly in present contexts the importance of being true with one’s ethical motives and virtuousnesss. True. non in the Elizabethan sense of doing certain you had your place and fundss in order to let you to break aid others. but true in a sense of Plato’s axiom â€Å"Know Thyself† . Jean-Jacques Rousseau. whose name is strongly associated with the Enlightenment motion. believed that the cognition of oneself is the beginning of wisdom ( Brennan. J. . p. 75 ) . Deriving this c ognition requires self-reflection. Reflection links changed consciousness with changed action. Contemplation is a valuable portion of any worthwhile attempt. When one takes the clip to thoughtfully reflect about an experience. one is given the chance to larn from it. to bask success. understand failures. and to derive penetrations that will be helpful to you in future activities The cognition of ego is indispensable to enable leaders and followings who aspire to take to clear up their ain values as they model the manner for others to follow ( Barry P. . Kouzes J. . 2012 ) . However. raising the cloud of the false personal perceptual experiences we all build from the forepart of our observation lenses is no easy undertaking. Our inexplicit biass. in-group favouritism. claims of imagined recognition and misjudged struggles of involvement are the fuel to the clouds that provide us an over-inflated sense of ego ( Hughes R. L. . et Al. . 2012. pp. 161-163 ) Simple self-reflection or self-contemplation is utile when we are seeking to make up ones mind to do for dinner. During the 2012 Human Capital Institute ( HCI ) Learning and Leader Developm ent Conference. BG ( Ret ) Thomas Kolditz said that. â€Å"You can’t become in 30 seconds what you haven’t been in 30 years† ( Fakalata. 2012 ) . Whether a leader is in a corporate council chamber. watching the company’s monetary value point per portion autumn so low that you need a particular ticket into the New York Stock Exchange’s stinking underbelly to see how far it truly drop. or whether a leader is watching his ladder and hose crews conflict an industrial chemical fire near a suburban Alabama community. the state of affairss that test leading are besides the events that produce competent and selfless leaders driven by moral duty and societal scruples ( Kolditz. 2007 ) . Likewise. these same state of affairss produce the corporate and local authorities scoundrels that are ridiculed for their selfishness. incompetency. heedlessness and greed. Motive provides one the ground for making something and may be considered the â€Å"why† that inspires the â€Å"what† needs to be done ( Covey. 2006. p. 78 ) . Valuess are concepts stand foring generalised behaviours or provinces of personal businesss th at are considered by the person to be of import ( Hughes. Ginnett. A ; Curphy. 2012. p. 152 ) . With these definitions in head. one may surmise that values – what is of import to us – steer us to follow motivations that become seeable to others through our behaviour towards and with others to finish the â€Å"what† needs to be done. Loyalty to a leader is engendered when followings can put their full trust in leaders who are perceived as individuals with high moral unity ( Wakin. 1976. p. 587 ) . The moral duties one has influences the values that drive us toward a certain set of motivations that cause us to take action under changing fortunes. Leaderships who are consistent with their behaviours with regard to their sensed moral duties are viewed as holding high moral unity and worthy of trust. The ability of a individual to take a group is frequently dependent on the civilization and the group’s beliefs in right and incorrect – the ethical clime ( Hughes. Ginnett. A ; Curphy. p. 155 ) . For illustration. a individual who values money. cut d owning disbursals. recognizing net incomes. and maximising concern chances is motivated by finance or fiscal wealth. This individual. taking a group that values devotedness to responsibility. difficult work. and regard for authorization. may see trouble because the values are non shared and will seldom align to the tradition that motivates the group being led. The fiscal leader in a group of diehards may be viewed negatively because the obtaining fiscal success is considered the incorrect â€Å"why† to make work that requires – from the groups perspective – responsibility. trueness. difficult work and regard. In any context where leading is a critical constituent to success. moral absolutists whose values reflect rigorous attachment to a defined rule-based thought procedure may be viewed as sturdy and hide-bound. Likewise. a pragmatist or a individual that uses end-based thought to warrant actions may be viewed as one who uses any method to inadvisably accomplish the organisations ends and aims. In either instance. the denomination of absolutist or pragmatist may be viewed as a dyslogistic depending on what values are shared by the followings and the organisation. However. neither moral archetype account is sufficient when covering with human actions and the values that drive the motivations behind these actions. Truth-telling. promise-keeping. saving of life. regard for belongings may non be absolute moral duties. but they are non comparative either. Rather. as Hughes describes. the state of affairs significantly influences both the precedence of moral duties and the leading interaction between the leader and followings in a peculiar state of affairs ( Hughes. Ginnett. A ; Curphy. p. 26 ) . In footings possibly more easy understood. moral duties like promise-keeping may be at odds. depending on the state of affairs. with an equal cosmopolitan duty like continuing life. Neither duty is absolute and neither is comparative. nevertheless fortunes may originate when 1 must prioritise the duty that shapes what one values and provides the motivation to take action. Leadership is about acquiring consequences in a manner that inspires trust ( Covey. 2006. p. 40 ) . Trust of oneself. trust in the relationships we have with our components and the organisation of which we are portion. The means to carry through a undertaking and acquire the expected consequences are merely every bit of import as the terminals. Leaderships possessing a set of ethical motives consistent with the moralss of a given society ( organisation ) are better able to acquire consequences in a manner that maintains or increases trust. The non-conformists and the dissenters who openly oppose dominant societal attitudes and political orientations are non needfully more right or more rational. But we might take their unfavorable judgment as an chance for honorable self-reflection and scrutiny of even our most in a heartfelt way held positions of ourselves and our society. Congruity with ethical motives. values. motivations and behavior consequences in what we might name unity. There are no spreads between what the individual believes and how they act. and therefore we can swear t hat actions are done in conformity with who the person truly is. MentionsAristotle. ( 1992. January 3 ) . Nichomachean Ethics. The Internet Classics Archive. Ten. ( D. C. Stevenson. Ed. . A ; W. D. Ross. Trans. ) Cambridge. MA. United States. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //classics. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. edu//Aristotle/nicomachaen. hypertext markup language Brennan. J. G. ( 1992 ) . Foundations of Moral Obligation ; The Stockdale Course. Newport. Rhode island: Naval War College Press. Covey. S. ( 2006 ) . The Speed of Trust: The One Thing ThatChanges Everything. New York. New york: Free Press. Heinlein. R. A. ( 1953 ) . Assignment in Eternity. NY. New York: Baen Publishing Enterprises. Hughes. R. L. . Ginnett. R. C. . A ; Curphy. G. J. ( 2012 ) . Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. New York. New york: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Mill. J. S. ( 1863 ) . Utilitarianism. London. England: Parker. Son and Bourne. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //play. Google. com/store/books/details? id=lyUCAAAA QAAJ A ; rdid=book-lyUCAAAAQAAJ A ; rdot=1 Wakin. M. M. ( 1976 ) . The Ethics of Leadership. American Behavioral Scientist ( Pre-1986 ) . 19 ( 5 ) . 567-588. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //search. proquest. com/docview/194626859? accountid=12871

Friday, February 28, 2020

Paraphrase, Summary and Quotation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Paraphrase, Summary and Quotation - Essay Example It was defined by African Americans and given the name Lindy, Jitterbug, or swing. Most of World War II soldiers hailed from the city or the big towns in America by that time. Most rural areas did not have good educational systems and so the minimum requirements in educational cut the rural people. During that time, there were little interactions with other tribes, which prevented learning of other languages other than English. Prior knowledge on shooting did not add value to persons who wanted to join the troops. After joining the army, a soldier received a through shave and given uniforms called combats to keep neat like other soldiers. Additionally, new soldiers received a vaccine to protect them form diseases, viruses, and boost their immunity. The reason behind this is that a soldier’s work involved moving across regions with disease causing pathogens. Life of a Soldier in the World War II proved hard. First, the soldier underwent tough training to keep fit called â€Å"fatigues.† Secondly, World War II soldiers received training on different co mmands by harsh superiors who appeared prone to hardship. The passage records the life of an American soldier who qualified to fight in the World War II. He had distinct characteristics from the soldier of the World War I and spoke English. To qualify, one needed high school education, driving licence among other qualifications. Soldiers received special training after the selection process under a harsh commander. To become a soldier in the World War II, a soldier had to pass various requirements. According to Sulzberger, â€Å"When he went off to serve his country, he had had some high school education; he knew how to drive a car, how to swim, how to do the Jitterbug or The Big Apple or the Lindy† (Sulzberger 125). Other qualifications included ability to speak in English and he needed not have