Thursday, September 3, 2020
Shops and Shopping in Victorian England Ã As the number of inhabitants in London developed during the nineteenth century, the methods for creation and conveyance would need to change to address the issues of the expanding masses. Before this period merchandise and items generally were gotten at business sectors or fairs. From a nation which had been dominatingly agrarian and independent in fundamental wares, England turned into an incredible assembling community. The modern towns of the North and Midlands created and England was the workshop of the world, the business sectors for her items being guaranteed by the developing needs of the pioneers of her Empire (Borer 253). Not exclusively was the developing Empire a tremendous market for England's merchandise; yet inside England, London specifically, we can see observations about items and individuals' shopping rehearses start to advance. It is now in history that Raymond Williams in his work, Culture and Society: 1780-1950, marks the move in the significance of industry. Industry, before this period, was a name for a specific human quality, which could be reworded as 'ability, assiduity, persistence, tirelessness'. . . . industry came likewise to mean something different; an aggregate word for our assembling and profitable establishments, and for their general exercises (xi). With this move we can start to see a more grounded accentuation on Industry and creation in Victorian England. The final product of a more prominent focus on creation is a tremendous increment in merchandise. This adjustment in intuition, combined with England's disregard of its farming interests, would compel a huge number of individuals off the land and into industry. Fairs and markets could not, at this point address the issues of the English open and shops started to manifest as another approach to circulate the merchandise of this system of large scale manufacturing. Inside this fateful opening we can start to see the improvement another type of specialists, the go between. Go betweens played out an interesting capacity in an economy that had before relied upon work based items. The go betweens would bring in their cash off the perspiration of others and their administrations comprised of receiving benefits with negligible physical effort. These new variety of shippers made their work by purchasing and selling for himself or others on commission; conjecturing; managing in cash and credit; and protecting merchandise and ships moving products. In the writing of the time we can see the delineations of these parasitic, investors in not the most complimenting terms. Shops and Shopping in Victorian England :: European Europe History Shops and Shopping in Victorian England Ã As the number of inhabitants in London developed during the nineteenth century, the methods for creation and dispersion would need to change to address the issues of the expanding masses. Before this period merchandise and items generally were gotten at business sectors or fairs. From a nation which had been transcendently agrarian and independent in basic wares, England turned into an incredible assembling community. The modern towns of the North and Midlands created and England was the workshop of the world, the business sectors for her items being guaranteed by the developing needs of the pioneers of her Empire (Borer 253). Not exclusively was the developing Empire a tremendous market for England's merchandise; however inside England, London specifically, we can see recognitions about items and individuals' shopping rehearses start to advance. It is now in history that Raymond Williams in his work, Culture and Society: 1780-1950, marks the move in the importance of industry. Industry, before this period, was a name for a specific human characteristic, which could be reworded as 'ability, assiduity, tirelessness, determination'. . . . industry came likewise to mean something different; an aggregate word for our assembling and gainful establishments, and for their general exercises (xi). With this move we can start to see a more grounded accentuation on Industry and creation in Victorian England. The final product of a more prominent fixation on creation is a huge increment in merchandise. This adjustment in deduction, combined with England's disregard of its farming interests, would compel a huge number of individuals off the land and into industry. Fairs and markets could not, at this point address the issues of the English open and shops started to manifest as another approach to circulate the merchandise of this componen t of large scale manufacturing. Inside this lucky opening we can start to see the improvement another type of businesspeople, the go between. Go betweens played out an interesting capacity in an economy that had before relied upon work based items. The brokers would bring in their cash off the perspiration of others and their administrations comprised of receiving benefits with negligible physical effort. These new variety of traders made their business by purchasing and selling for himself or others on commission; conjecturing; managing in cash and credit; and safeguarding merchandise and ships moving products. In the writing of the time we can see the delineations of these parasitic, investors in not the most complimenting terms.
Posted by Callen Kirkland at 2:13 AM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Question: Portray about the Trust and Equity Law of Instruments of Fraud. Answer: In the given circumstance Sanjeev before his demise had caused a legitimate will to and gave upon his girl Ishani the ranch on the Isle of Wright along with every one of its substance and to Amal his cousin all of 30,000 offers in Harcombe Plc. Darshan and Jamil, then again, guarantee that before his demise Sanjeev had guaranteed Darshan the homestead on the Isle of Wright by method of composing and to Jamil the 30,000 offers in Harcombe Plc. According to Amal, be that as it may, the offer exchange structures had just been finished by Sanjeev in support of him, and was anticipating just the affirmation the Board of Directors of the Company. The Law of Probate expresses that a departed benefactor who needs to desert his property in a trust must make reference to equivalent to his expectation in the will. In any case, there might be a mystery trust if the departed benefactor isn't happy to name the recipient in whose favor he needs to desert the property freely. In this circumstance on the will he makes the endowment of the property to the recipients named in that anyway makes reference to it to them then they will hold the property for recipients who are anonymous. There have been doctrinal troubles with the mystery trust acknowledgment as there is contradiction that is evident with the Wills Act 1837, Section 9. It is required under this Section every single testamentary air are to be marked by the deceased benefactor and ought to be recorded as a hard copy alongside the observer. Hence in the given instance of Sanjeev's declaration, it is conceivable that there is a mystery believe that has been shaped by Sanjeev in th e kindness of Darshan and Jameel. This mystery trust is essentially of two sorts (an) a completely mystery trust the completely seceret trust's legitimacy had been acknowledged and built up on account of McCormick versus Gorgan by the House of Lords and (b) a half mystery trust is where the presence of the equivalent shows up in the will. In any case, there are no proper terms that show up in it. In the given circumstance of Darsh and Jameel, it could be a completely mystery anyway there are sure measures that should be consented to for it to be a mystery trust, in the given case for the trust to exist all the rules have not been fulfilled. In a trust that is completely mystery trust the desire of trust and its terms are not referenced in the will. The oral proof of trustee and deceased benefactor is adequate for the most part in these sorts of trust. Nonetheless, there ought to be a goal with respect to the deceased benefactor for the production of such trust. In any case, it must be noticed that on account of such trust it is essential that there ought to be correspondence of the goal to the trustee, and either impliedly or explicitly there must be acknowledgment by the trustee of the equivalent. There probably been an aim with respect to the deceased benefactor to make a trust in this structure, and there more likely than not been correspondence of the trust and its terms to the trustee who has been proposed before the will's execution, these terms likewise ought to have been acknowledged by the trustee. It was held on account of Blackwell versus Blackwell that there are three essential components to this mystery trust (a) goal, (b) correspondence and (c) passive consent. The expectation of the departed benefactor is that the whole blessing ought to be used in a way will and not the wants of the done, this aim is advised to the donee and either by method of implied or express guarantee which is demonstrated through quiet submission, there is support by the proposed accomplished for handing down of cash in the confidence that there is a completing of the aim. Anyway due to there being an absence of proof regarding the terms and presence there is a slight clumsiness in completely mystery trust. The test for demonstrating whether a completely mystery trust was in presence was set out on account of Ottaway versus Norman. This test it that the individual to whom there is an inconvenience of the trust is the essential donee' and under the trust the recipient will be the optional d onee'. Components that are fundamental to be demonstrated are (I) there more likely than not been an aim with respect to the deceased benefactor for oppressing the essential donee with the commitment which is in the optional donee's kindness; (ii) the goal ought to be imparted to the essential donee; and (iii) the commitment must be acknowledged by the essential donee shrink by quiet submission. It anyway not material whether the components succeed or go before the contributor's will. In this way for a completely mystery trust to legitimate, it is to be demonstrated that an expectation was there to make the trust which was imparted to the trustee, and these commitments had been acknowledged by the trustee. Expectation as one of the prerequisites applies to the completely mystery confides in a similar way as it applies to other trusts. The subsequent prerequisite is that of correspondence to the trustee of both the terms just as the mystery trust to the trustee this might be done after the will has been composed anyway it must be preceding the passing of the person in the event that there is no correspondence, at that point the trust would be void. Kay J. on account of Re Boyes opined that correspondence implies that there ought to be an opportunity given to the trustee for declining the workplace, and all things considered, after death, the equivalent can't be done. Lastly, it is vital that the trustee acknowledges his office. For the situation Wallgrave versus Tebbs the two habits wherein this should be possible was set out by Wood VC when he stated that where an individual realizes that mien is being made by departed benefactor in support of him the goal of the equivalent is application for purposes that are for benefits other than his, either guarantees explicitly, or by suggested quiet that the expectation of the deceased benefactor will be done in this impact it is upon the confidence of that comprehension or guarantee that the property is left to him. Along these lines the correspondence of the acknowledgment can be in two different ways either by direct expressing of the trustee of his acknowledgment or by not denying suggesting the same. On account of Darshan and Jameel, the case of a mystery trust would be hard to build up as their should be consistence with the three necessities as set down in the instances of Ottaway and Blackwell. Anyway it appears from the realities of the case referenced that there was no suggestion that was given and in a completely mystery trust where in there are no words that force the trust for the situation that there is no correspondence to the legatee during the lifetime of the departed benefactor then the will produced results as being to the legate a helpful gift. Also it appears that there was no open door that was given to the recipients under the Ishani and Amal and as given on account of Re Boyes wherein it was opined that two archives that were unattested would not be adequate for constitution correspondence of the trust's terms as there was no open door that was given to the trustee for denying the equivalent. Essentially in Darshan and Jameel's case however there is a compo sed letter and a clear offer exchange structure which as guaranteed by them had been given over to them by Sanjeev anyway these are unattested reports and there is no verification that comparable suggestion had been given to Ishani and Amal too. In this manner, it very well may be expressed that on account of Jameel and Darshan the main prerequisite that is being satisfied is that of aim of the deceased benefactor. Anyway from the realities, it appears that the equivalent has not been conveyed, and neither has there been acknowledgment of this trust. The goal has anyway been built up with sureness as he has given recorded as a hard copy to Darsh the homestead at the Isle of Wright and to anyway what isn't obviously shown that Sanjeev needed to name Ishani and Amal as essential donee to hold as the trust for Jameel and Darshan. For the situation Re Snowden it was held that correspondence must be of both the details of the trust and the realities of the trust, conveying the trusts degree and this correspondence is required to be made before the deceased benefactors death. It is required for the trustee proposed to acknowledge to hold the property as trust. In Jameel and Darshans case from the reality it appears that th e two Ishani and Amal had not been made mindful of the way that the property was to be held in trust and that there was goal with respect to Sanjeev to have it moved to Jameel and Darshan, because of absence of proof in regards to a similar it is hard to set up that a mystery trust existed for Jameel and Darshan. There are anyway two hypotheses that can be utilized to legitimize the circumstance for Jameel and Darshan. The main hypothesis is the extortion hypothesis. This hypothesis depends on the way that the rule will not be allowed by value to be utilized as an instrument of extortion. The refusal of trust is forestalled under the activity of misrepresentation hypothesis dependent on legal conventions that are unsuitable. It was on account of Rouchefoucauld v. Boustead that this hypothesis picked up help. The other hypothesis is that of Dehors the Will Theory which it is contended that the activity of the mystery trust is outside the will. Be that as it may, both these speculations are truly inconsistent regarding the acknowledgment of proof and can't be depended on for this situation as there is no proof of the way that there was correspondence with the donee under the will Ishani and Amal that such trust would exist. Taking everything into account, it very well may be expressed that there was no mystery trust between the gatherings as, if there is a mystery trust, it is important that there ought to be a proof for making it enforceable. This can be a composed or oral proof yet as in an express trust should unmistakably show that there is an aim for the making of the trust. Just negligible expectation or words that are precatory are not sufficient. For the situation of Jameel and Amal, it tends to be said that there was an insignificant expectation that a mystery trust would exist however insufficient proof to demonstrate the equivalent. Further as talked about correspondence
Posted by Callen Kirkland at 5:49 PM
Friday, August 21, 2020
$100 PC by John Quelch - Essay Example He required interest in each million in turn by a country in Laptop and including all consumptions, the sticker price could go to $ 200 million to $ 250 million. Negroponte chose not to wander into creation until he has solid duties from governments to purchase at any rate 5,000,000 machines outside the USA. Contenders were progressively bringing down their item costs with no such limitation. The main problem was the move in innovation. The developing markets were probably going to be remote driven instead of PC-driven. Subsequently it was increasingly practical to appropriate web empowered mobile phones to kids for instruction instead of attempting to fabricated and disseminate Wi-FI empowered work systems with gave or sponsored Laptops as was being finished by OLPC. The issue was of problematic development and market advancement. OLPC is confronting a wide range of difficulties and shifted circumstances both inside and in the outer condition. In the table underneath is the rundown of the couple of generally pertinent and significant realities concerning OLPC. SWOT investigation is the best device that gives the structure to the examination of the business condition. It is viewed as progressively compelling in light of the fact that, as it were, it consolidates the Porters five powers with the PEST investigation. It requires cautious prioritization of solid chances and dangers. Wrong choice may prompt more fragile chances and dangers coming in the investigation. SWOT investigation gives both inner and outside examination and gives a basic investigation of qualities, shortcomings, openings and dangers. It helps associations in building up its procedures like SO that underlines on using qualities to catch the chances. WT methodology centers around limiting shortcomings and dangers. ST methodology centers around utilizing qualities in limiting danger though WS technique is centered around limiting shortcomings while concentrating on qualities. Similarly, openings can be used to limit shortcoming WO and dangers OT relying upon the system of th e organization. (Gerry Johnson, 2008).
Posted by Callen Kirkland at 3:31 PM
Sunday, June 7, 2020
As a GRE tutor, I have worked with many students who believe that they have a large vocabulary and they typically do, but they lose points on the GRE because they do not know the official definition of a word. The way we use words in spoken English isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always true to the original meaning. For example, take the word Ã¢â¬Å"momentarilyÃ¢â¬ . How many times have you been on a train and heard the train announcer say: Ã¢â¬Å"We will be moving momentarily.Ã¢â¬ Well, this actually means: Ã¢â¬Å"We will be moving for a momentÃ¢â¬ , not the intended Ã¢â¬Å"We will be moving in a momentÃ¢â¬ . Due to the common misappropriation of language, our understanding and usage of vocabulary sometimes deviates from the official defintion. These distinctions matter on tests, so focusing your standadized test preparation on memmorizing (or re-learning) vocab helps. These kinds of traps are common on the GRE. To get started, download our Vocabulary hotlist. ; Now that youÃ¢â¬â¢re armed with every GRE word that could possibly show up on the test, we recommend that you: Ã¢â¬ ¢ CreateGRE vocab flashcards. Yes, there are pre-made flashcards out there, but hereÃ¢â¬â¢s the thing: They cost money and they just donÃ¢â¬â¢t work as well. Nothing beats index cards + an old-fashioned pencil (or pen) when it comes to vocab. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Get started on avocab schedule. Even if you only write 2 or 3 new flashcards a day, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s better than zero flashcards and itÃ¢â¬â¢s better than buying a whole stack and cramming for a week. You may be wondering: How do I pick the most important words off this enormously long list? This is where a tutor can help you. Cambridge CoachingÃ¢â¬â¢s GRE tutors have seen hundreds of GRE problems and they can help you hone in on key vocabulary. ;
Posted by Callen Kirkland at 5:54 AM
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
International organizational feuds: acts of aggression? In this paper I will take an in depth look at recent state sanctioned Chinese cyber-attacks against United States organizations and agencies. These attacks have had profound effects, ultimately altering structures and processes. Government officials are calling for millions of dollars in training and defense measures, while many are now becoming aware of a new type of threat. The inter-organizational relationships, external environment, and ecosystem have also been denaturized. I will also take a look at scholarly definitions of war and how they may be applied to the issue at hand. Finally, I will examine the United NationÃ¢â¬â¢s doctrine and deem whether these attacks should be considered aggressive acts made by China, and what may result. Before state sanctioned cyber-attacks against U.S. organizations, infrastructure, and government can be analyzed, the concepts and environment surrounding the issue must be explored. These concepts include the traditional theoretical views of war and armed conflict, the current definitions of cyber-warfare, and the relationship of armed conflict and law in the changing landscape of the twenty-first century. Many of these concepts are still actively debated today due to building and breaking of relationships, evolving nature of cyber warfare, and the dynamism phenomenon or state of the environment, which Daft (2016) defines as Ã¢â¬Å"stable or unstable, simple or complexÃ¢â¬ (p.146). InShow MoreRelatedOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 Pagesinteresting and valuable. Peter Holdt Christensen, Associate Professor, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark McAuley et al.Ã¢â¬â¢s book is thought-provoking, witty and highly relevant for understanding contemporary organizational dilemmas. The book engages in an imaginative way with a wealth of organizational concepts and theories as well as provides insightful examples from the practical world of organizations. The authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ sound scholarship and transparent style of writing set the book apart, making it an ingeniousRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesmymanagementlab is an online assessment and preparation solution for courses in Principles of Management, Human Resources, Strategy, and Organizational Behavior that helps you actively study and prepare material for class. Chapter-by-chapter activities, including built-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Read MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words Ã |Ã 658 PagesIntroduction to strategy Business environment: general Five forces analysis Capability analysis Corporate governance Stakeholder expectations Social responsibility Culture Competitive strategy Strategic options: directions Corporate-level strategy International strategy Innovation and Entrepreneurship Strategic options: methods Strategy evaluation Strategic management process Organising Resourcing Managing change Strategic leadership Strategy in practice Public sector/not-for-proÃ¯ ¬ t management Small business
Posted by Callen Kirkland at 7:00 PM
Adolescence refers to the age group from 14 to 26 years. Ten percent of this age group use party drugs (Bennett, 2003). According to Arnett (2004) , this period of development is distinguished by five characteristics: identity exploration, instability, self-focus, a feeling of in-between and possibilities (Arnett, 2004, pg. 14). It is against these five characteristics that the impact of party drugs on the youth culture will be assessed. This essay will explore how the characteristics of adolescence place teenagers at risk from drug experimentation and how the perception of policy makers will influence the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s response to the problem. The exploration of identity involves having a range of experiences that provides the adolescent with the means to assess the possibilities for the purpose of formulating a distinctive self-image. To do this requires that the teenager have a range of experiences that seem distinct from those experienced through their parents. This journey of exploration results in an introverted focus on self and a sense of becoming, of being caught in the middle. In the individualised cultures of western societies, this transition involves a separation from parents and the construction of an independent self-sufficient identity (Arnett, 2004). The instability can often manifest in Ã¢â¬Ërisky behavioursÃ¢â¬â¢. Although adolescence is a time for the construction of a unique self identity, it is also a time when a sense of belonging is engendered through common cultural construction. One subset of this cultural construction is the rave party scene that is a global phenomenon of the youth subculture (Shapiro, 1999). A rave party is often a large gathering of young people in an atmosphere where there is music and laser lights. This sub-culture is linked to the drug culture through party drugs such as ecstasy and ketamine. The effect of these drugs is to create a sense of wellbeing and a feeling of lightness. The choice to take drugs is an individual one and is part of the desire to escape from the pressures of adolescence. The rave party by its very nature is essentially a form of escape. What then are adolescences escaping from? The very nature of adolescence: the sense of being without identity, the lack of a mental framework to manage the adult world and the pressures of identity construction, create tensions in the person. This escapism is not confined to adolescences as many adults abuse alcohol and amphetamines as a means of escaping the pressures of the adult world. For many users, taking the drug is part of the risk behaviour of adolescence that has the pay-off of feelings of well-being. They do not se themselves as drug users as they do not view their use of party drugs as being a problem. This normalises drug use and makes it difficult for agencies to intervene (Duff, 2003). It is wrong however to assume that all users are escaping from something. One of the features of adolescence is the search for identity and self meaning. This search behaviour creates a heightened sense of curiosity in adolescents as they seek to make sense of self. This curiosity can evolve unconsciously to drug abuse through prolonged use as a result of the uplifting effects of the first experience. The need to fund the regular purchase of the drug can lead into dealing. Bad experiences often will not cause a rejection of the drug as these pale against the many pleasures that the individual has experienced. The chain of events can have dire consequences for the individual as a health problem becomes a criminal problem. The long term destruction that criminalisation of drugs causes to young people is good reason to see drug abuse as a health problem. Within party drug users there are the same segments that are feature of any drug user cross section. Some users abuse the drug and are at risk from overdose and dehydration. Others are more controlled and cautious in their use. This group is at risk from being unable to identify the ingredients of the drug that they are purchasing. One of the key problems with party drugs is the inability for the buyer to know the ingredients contained in the drug that they are purchasing (VAAD, 2003). Users of party drugs will tend to repeat their use on a regular basis. According to Baxter (2003) users are concerned that there is no means of determining the purity and reducing the level of risk. Males tend to use party drugs more frequently than females. This tends to indicate that there is greater gender difference where males are less risk averse. This trend is declining as more and more females are using party drugs. This trend reflects the emancipation of women and a stronger sense of independence amongst adolescent women. The traditional delineation of the rite of passage for the male and the female have become blurred in modern society. Women will often use drugs to challenge the traditional perceptions of their role in society. Within the community, there are people that see drug abuse as being criminal while others see it as a social and health problem. The criminal perspective adopts a punishment solution with rehabilitation. Such a position can have a long term effect on the individual due to problems faced with travel and employment. Community response is to increase policing and to use strategies such as sniffer dogs in public and undercover police at venues to catch the suppliers and users. Police raids will be conducted on rave parties. Such an approach marginalises the rave culture and runs the risk of impairing the social development of the individual. The perspective that sees the issue as a health issue seeks to develop preventative programmes that educate people. Greater understanding is sought for the motivation of young people for taking drugs through social research. Strategies for assisting at risk people are developed that provides for free, readily available access to health care and treatment. The health professional will often argue for the decriminalisation of the drug so that it can be obtained in a controlled manner and the purity of the product guaranteed. When considered against the characteristics of adolescence as provided by Arnett (2004), this approach appears to be the least detrimental to the social and personal development of the adolescent. Government programs, such as Ravesafe, adopt this approach. One of the prime reasons that this approach should prevail is that party drugs are seen by the user as being catalysts for self reflection and construction of identity. Their sense of self and social relationships results in a positive self-image which may be in contradiction to how they feel when in the adult world. The party drug tends to alleviate insecurity and doubt. Research has shown that there might be some overflow from the atmosphere of the rave party to real life. The need for early intervention arises from the research findings that drug abuse is often a precursor for youth suicide, crime and metal illness (VAAD, 2003). Interventionist strategies will view drug use as a problem which immediately places the interventionist in opposition to the youth culture. The clash between the pleasures of the drug and the potential harm of the drug creates a generational clash (Duff, 2003). To deal with the issue it is necessary to accept the reality of use and work on fostering environments that support safe use. If this is provided then it will reduce the Ã¢â¬Ëtrial and errorÃ¢â¬â¢ approach that is a feature of the risk behaviour of adolescents. VAAD (2003) found that the problem can be best solved through drug education that must resist seeing the youth culture as a homogeneous group. Adolescents involved in the rave scene come from a wide variety of backgrounds (Shapiro, 1999). Because there is little understanding of the attitudes of youth subgroups within the rave scene it is necessary for more research to be done (Baxter, 2003). In this way the content and approach of the drug education programme can directly appeal to the target segment. This will help in a more receptive response from the target group. In conclusion, the developmental characteristics of adolescence creates a natural disposition towards drug experimentation amongst some segments of teenagers. Party drugs are often seen as being part of the scene that assist in the integration of the individual with both self and the group that they belong to. Drug use can be used by the female gender to reconstruct identity. Given these features, the perspective that drug use should be a criminal offence resulting in punishment and long term consequences for the individual seems self defeating. The view that drug abuse has the potential to be a health problem will result in a community response that is more supportive to the individual. The safety of the drug can be established and the social stigma placed on adolescents can be removed. Social policy needs to consider the developmental characteristics of adolescence in its construction.
Posted by Callen Kirkland at 12:26 AM